Wednesday, November 21, 2007

What is Gravity? Information on what some people think gravity really is.

Scientists still have a tough time understanding what this force is. This remains one of the greatest challenges of 21st Century science.

Here is the mainstream view of what gravity is. After we reveal some sources of alternate views of what gravity is.

Gravity is a force pulling together all matter (which is anything you can physically touch). The more matter, the more gravity, so things that have a lot of matter such as planets and moons and stars pull more strongly.

Mass is how we measure the amount of matter in something. The more massive something is, the more of a gravitational pull it exerts. As we walk on the surface of the Earth, it pulls on us, and we pull back. But since the Earth is so much more massive than we are, the pull from us is not strong enough to move the Earth, while the pull from the Earth can make us fall flat on our faces.

In addition to depending on the amount of mass, gravity also depends on how far you are from something. This is why we are stuck to the surface of the Earth instead of being pulled off into the Sun, which has many more times the gravity of the Earth.

MAGNETISM

Some atoms can be magnetic. When electrons spin around the nucleus (or any particles moving through bether for that matter, but for our example we’re going to focus on the electron), they cause a “drag” on the bether that they pass through. This is not to say that they experience friction, but rather the temporary displacement of the bether that their presence causes is not equally shaped in front and behind the path of the electron (from a point of reference where the electron is moving; we’ll get to that in more detail later). This causes a little bit of bether to stretch with the electron before more slowly returning to its original position.

Particle speeding through bether

The same amount of bether is displaced in front as it is behind, however,…

A: …bether behind the particle expands slower than the rate it was originally stretched…

B: …in front of the particle, hence bether is “dragged” somewhat behind the particle

The net energy used to displace the bether in front of the electron is perfectly balanced with the returned energy behind it so the electron does not lose any energy; however, because of the extremely small radius of atoms, the bether is constantly being pulled and stretched around the atom in the direction of the electrons’ rotation.

Electron “drag” causes the bether within its circumference to be somewhat twisted

You may be wondering what keeps these electrons moving in and between shells. Bether is constantly in a fluctuating state, in regards to its ambient pressure. At the resolution that we humans can physically sense the dynamics of bether (as in gravity, or light waves), it feels pretty consistent, but at the atomic level, there is a constant bombardment of alternating waves of high and low pressure bether (just like a buoy bobs around on a ceaseless ocean). There are magnetic fields (regions of twisted bether), as well, that the electrons are perpetually compelled to react to, keeping them actively seeking the best balancing point within their current shell.

It may seem that this dragging bether along with an electron might slow it down but everything is relative, meaning that if you were capable of rotating your point of observation to match that of the orbiting unpaired electrons around an atom (as absurd as that notion is), that atom would not be magnetic, relative to you, and the electron would also no longer be dragging any bether, relative to you. So, what may seem like friction from one perspective, is frictionless from another. More on “frame of reference” is coming up.

Now for simpler atoms, the electrons will fill each shell’s orbitals (an orbital is kind of like a subshell within a shell) in pairs, and each half of a pair opposes and cancels the effect of the other half's drag. Hence, the atom balances out to having no charge (neutral).

A: Shell

B: Orbital

C: Each orbital has a maximum of 2 electrons that orbit in opposite directions so as to counteract each other’s bether drag

It should be noted that orbitals are not necessarily spherical but that some orbitals are discrete regions within a shell where an electron may be found. For our purposes, it will suffice to simplify their structure to spheres for clarity.

In the heavier elements however, electrons will not always fill in the shell’s orbitals in pairs, and instead some orbitals will have just one electron. These solitary electrons are responsible for shifting the atom’s balance from a non-charge state to a magnetic charge state since their bether-drag is not being counteracted by an opposing electron in their same orbital. The bether is forever chasing these solo electrons in the attempt to equalize the imbalance of bether pressure caused by the electron’s drag. The net result of this chase is that a magnet is formed from the perpetually twisted bether in the atom. The more unpaired electrons you have that are orbiting in a common direction, generally the farther the bether will be twisted around the atom and hence the greater the magnetic charge.

An analogy would be to place a ball on our blanket (the ball representing the entire atom) and then rolling it to wrap itself up in the blanket, forming opposing twists in the blanket on each side of the ball. This isn’t to say that the blanket keeps getting twisted indefinitely around the ball, but that eventually the blanket will not stretch any further and the ball will just spin inside the wrap of blanket.

A: Blanket wraps around the ball much like bether wraps around atoms with unpaired electrons

B: Ball rolls in this direction

C: Blanket wrapping the ball forms opposite twists on each side of it. This demonstrates how bether is twisted to form negative and positive charges, hence a magnet

This example simulates how an electron’s drag within an atom can wrap bether around the atom. Put gagillions of magnetic atoms together into an object with the majority of these atoms all aligned in the same direction, and you will now have a large “sum of parts” magnet as all these atoms combine their bether twisting efforts into one large twist that wraps the entire object.

The atoms of most metals have a large number of electrons orbiting about their nucleuses and this makes them natural candidates for being magnets; however, in solid metal, the atoms are mostly jammed all together haphazardly and are pointing in all directions, fighting each other for their individual preferred magnetic orientations.

A: Magnetically neutral object (e.g., an iron bar)

Disarrayed magnetic atoms cancel the magnetic effects of each other on a large scale

Some metals, however, were formed in high temperatures where the metal was molten for a long enough period of time that the magnetic pull of the earth aligned the atoms before the metal had a chance to cool and solidify. When these metallic pieces cooled, their atoms remained aligned, locked in position, and as a whole became a large powerful natural magnet with all the atoms pointing together in a common direction.

A: Magnetized object (e.g., a magnetic iron bar)

Symmetrically aligned magnetic atoms create a large magnetic object overall

Natural magnets will attract non-magnetized metals since the magnetic field is strong enough to force some of the non-magnetized metal’s particles to break their position and rotate into proper orientation (negative facing positive), and this passes on a little bit of that magnetism from the magnet to the other metal.

Around anything magnetic exists invisible “force” lines

A: Force lines are formed around magnets

caused by the layers of wrapped bether that surround a magnet, like our previous blanket-wrapping analogy. What differentiates magnetized from non-magnetized metal is that a magnet simply has a significant number of its atoms aligned so that these atoms collectively twist bether around the object, all in the same direction; and it does this on such a scale that we can actually see it with our own eyes. This effect of magnetism can be observed by placing a magnet under a piece of paper and then spreading metal filings on the paper. The metal filings will be attracted to the regions of strongest magnetic pull, which are between the layers of overlapped bether that wrap the magnet.

So how exactly does a magnet attract or repel other objects? Using our rope again, hold it stretched between your two hands, then have another person grab it in the middle and start twisting it by rolling their fist backwards so that the halves of the rope start forming opposite twists. They shouldn’t twist so far as to create loops (particles) but just enough to add significant twisting strain to our rope. Their twisting action simulates the effect of unpaired electrons orbiting around an atom, and the rope demonstrates the twisting that the bether around the atom endures because of the electrons’ motion.

A: Person A holding the rope at both ends

B: Person B rotates hand to add twisting strain to rope

Now you have a magnet, or at least the simulated effect of forming a magnet from bether. Note that the rope does not shorten in length as it would if you continued to twist until a loop formed. Now get a couple more people to do exactly the same thing but with another rope, and now you have two “rope” magnets.

A: Person A holding the rope at both ends

B: Person B twisting rope

C: Person C holding an identical rope to person A’s

D: Person D twisting rope identically to person B

Take the end of the rope in your right hand and attach it to the end of the rope in the left hand of the person holding the ends of the other rope, and then both of you let go of the newly attached ends.

E: Attach ends of twisted ropes

F: Since they are opposite twists (charges, poles, etc.) they unwind themselves, relieving the twisting strain

The rope section between the middle pair of hands immediately unwinds itself, releasing all the twisting strain that was applied there. This is the same as what happens when you bring opposing ends of magnetically charged atoms together (remember, charges are simply twists of bether); they unwind each other’s adjacent charge. The closer the magnets are together, the greater the relief to the twisted bether, and so the magnets are elastically pulled together with great force as the bether untwists—unlike gravity, which pinches things together from outside.

To continue where we left off, now the two attached ropes as a whole act like a single larger magnet due to the fact that the two hands that added the twisting to each individual rope now combine in their twisting efforts. To parallel this to our magnetic atoms, bringing the oppositely charged ends of these atoms together will combine the bether twisting effects of the unpaired electrons of both atoms, essentially creating a larger unified magnetic field. Unlike our rope, however, it is impossible with bether to separate the attached ends to end up with a single charge (a monopole) on each side because once the magnetic charges (the ropes) are separated again, they each reform into individual bipolar magnets since there no longer is a proximal opposing charge to counter the twisted bether (magnetic field) that forms on both sides of a magnetic atom. So to emulate this in our rope example, return the hands that were removed and as the ropes are separated, re-twist them to re-form the original charges.

E: Re-twist the rope, then…

F: …separate the ends. This simulates the effects on bether from pulling magnets apart

This simulates the resistance that you feel when pulling real magnets apart, which is the bether resisting the re-twisting motion.

The exact opposite happens should you bring similar magnetic poles together. The closer you bring them, the more the bether has to contain the same number of twists within a decreasing distance; these twists being the same direction, they can’t unwind each other.

E: Person C rotates the entire length of the rope, such that the opposite hand is now adjacent to the end of Person A’s rope

F: Hands and twists are now opposite

G: Attach the ends

H: Ropes can’t unwind because twists are in same direction (same charges)

I: Sliding B and D’s hands together along the rope will shorten the length of rope between them but not the number of twists. The closer the hands are together, the more the twisting strain increases on this section of rope, which resists the action of bringing the hands together. This simulates how bether resists being twisted. When two same-charged magnetic ends of atoms (or objects) are brought together, bether will try to push them apart to relieve the twisting strain being imposed by the charges

Ultimately, with enough strength, the magnets could be forced into direct contact with each other and this would provide the greatest amount of bether twisting resistance, better known as magnetic repulsion. Bether can provide powerful resistance to being so twisted, and the instant the magnets are released from their forced proximity, the twisted bether immediately acts like a spring, pushing the two magnets apart.

Photons are largely unaffected by magnetic fields because although the bether is twisted, it still occupies the same volume as if it weren’t forming a magnetic field, and therefore it’s still the same average pressure as untwisted bether. It’s only when photons go through a gravitational field where the bether is actually stretched, like the gravity field that surrounds an object, that photons will pursue the path of least pressure towards the most stretched bether. This gives observers the impression that the photon was attracted by the object when in fact it was pinched toward the object by the higher pressure bether on the outer side of its path.